Group of people waving South African flags in back lit.

Confronting Apartheid

Explore South Africa’s tumultuous history from the early interactions between white European settlers and native African tribes to the implementation of apartheid and the long struggle for democracy.


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At a Glance



English — US


  • Civics & Citizenship
  • History
  • Social Studies


  • Democracy & Civic Engagement


About This Collection

This resource explores critical moments in South Africa's history, including the period prior to European colonization, the period of colonization, the development of policies based on racial segregation, and the development of the apartheid state. It further discusses anti-apartheid movements and the institutions, policies, and principles put in place to facilitate the development of a non-racial democracy. Lastly, this resource includes both the growth of race rule and resistance to white rule. 

Confronting Apartheid includes:

  • Our themes of identity, membership, and belonging as explored through the stories of individuals, communities, organizations, and institutions
  • Exploration of the human behavior throughout this turbulent history, including examples of conformity, obedience, and perpetration as well as resistance and the human consequences of violent victimization
  • Examples of civic engagement at the national and communal leadership levels
  • Examination of a nation’s work to redress and repair its violent past and its legacies in order to establish and nurture a democracy

This book supports an exploration about Confronting Apartheid. It includes:

  • 4 chapters
  • 25 readings with connection questions 

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